General Conditions Affecting The Foot And Ankle
- The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals).
- The midfoot is a pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet. These include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone.
- The hindfoot forms the heel and ankle. The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot.
Muscles, tendons, and ligaments run along the surfaces of the feet, allowing the complex movements needed for motion and balance. The Achilles tendon connects the heel to the calf muscle and is essential for running, jumping, and standing on the toes. Sometime you get conditions that can affect the wellbeing of your feet like a few of these conditions below
Use the foot health information pages below to learn more common foot conditions and treatments. Latest Information About General Foot Health Brochures:
Important Disclaimer The information presented in these links are for educational purposes only and is not in any way meant to be a substitute for medical care or advice from a physician or health care professional. Readers of these links should consult directly with physicians or health care professionals for any medical care or advice.
Arthritis is inflammation and swelling of the cartilage and lining of the joints, generally accompanied by an increase in the fluid in the joints. Each foot has 33 joints that can be afflicted with arthritis.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis caused by a buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints that can lead to sudden, intense pain.
Diabetes & Cardiovascular Disease
- Charcot Foot
The term “Charcot foot” describes a pattern of bone and joint damage that results in weaknesses.
Today’s podiatrist plays a key role in helping patients manage diabetes successfully and avoid foot-related complications.
- Diabetic Wound Care
A diabetic foot ulcer is an open sore or wound that occurs in approximately 15 percent of patients with diabetes and is commonly located on the bottom of the foot.
- High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is also known as hypertension. Your podiatrist is vitally concerned about hypertension and vascular disease (heart and circulatory problems).
- Peripheral Arterial Disease
PAD is caused by a blockage or narrowing of the arteries in the legs when fatty deposits (plaque) build up. The buildup of plaque causes the arteries to harden and narrow.
- Peripheral Neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy is damage of the peripheral nerves—the nerves in your toes and fingertips. In the United States, the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy is diabetes.
Foot & Ankle Injuries
Bursitis is inflammation and swelling of fluid-filled sacs called bursae.
- Puncture Wounds
A puncture wound is a traumatic injury to the foot.
- Sprains, Strains, and Fractures
The feet and ankles work together to provide support and mobility to the body. A foot or ankle sprain is a soft tissue injury. A fracture is actually a break in the bone.
Muscle & Tendon Problems
- Haglund’s Deformity
Haglund’s Deformity is a bony enlargement of the back of the heel bone. Sometimes it’s called “pump bump” because the deformity often occurs in women who wears pumps.
- Heel Pain
The heel bone is the largest of the 26 bones in the human foot. Like all bones, it is subject to outside influences that can affect its integrity and cause heel pain.
Tendinitis is the inflammation of a tendon. Achilles tendinitis, or an inflammation of the Achilles tendon, is one of the most common causes of foot or ankle pain.
- Athlete’s Foot
Athlete’s foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus. It most commonly attacks the feet because shoes create a warm, dark, and humid environment that encourages fungus growth.
- Corns and Calluses
Corns and calluses are areas of thickened skin that develop to protect that area from irritation. They are usually caused by rubbing or excess pressure against part of the foot.
Psoriasis is caused by faster-than-normal turnover of skin cells. In people who have psoriasis, the new cells move to the surface so rapidly that the dead cells build up on the surface in dry, whitish-silver patches.
- Skin Cancers of the Feet
Skin cancer can develop anywhere on the body, including in the lower extremities. Most skin cancers of the feet are painless, and often there is a history of recurrent cracking, bleeding, or ulceration.
- Sweaty Feet
Excessive sweating of the feet is called hyperhidrosis. People whose feet sweat excessively often also have problems with excessive sweating of the palms.
Warts are one of several soft tissue conditions of the foot that can be quite painful. They are caused by a virus and can appear anywhere on the skin.
Toe Joint & Nerve Disorders
A bunion is an enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe that forms when the bone or tissue at the big toe joint moves out of place. If you suspect you have a bunion, find a podiatrist!
- Hammer Toes
A hammer toe is a contracture, or bending, of the toe at the first joint of the digit, called the proximal interphalangeal joint. This bending causes the toe to appear like an upside-down V when looked at from the side.
A neuroma is a painful condition, also referred to as a “pinched nerve” or a nerve tumor. It is a benign growth of nerve tissue frequently found between the third and fourth toes.
- Ingrown Toenails
Ingrown toenails, the most common nail impairment, are nails whose corners or sides dig painfully into the soft tissue of nail grooves, often leading to irritation, redness, and swelling.
- Toenail Fungus
Toenail fungus is an infection underneath the surface of the nail caused by fungi. The disease is characterized by a progressive change in a toenail’s quality and color.
- Prescription Custom Orthotics and Shoe Inserts
Shoe inserts are any kind of non-prescription foot support designed to be worn inside a shoe. Custom orthotics are specially-made devices designed to support and comfort your feet.
Often when pain or deformity persists, surgery may be appropriate to alleviate discomfort or to restore the function of your foot.